What causes early dental implant failure?

Primary lack of stability, surgical trauma and infection appear to be the most important causes of early implant failure. The first signs of infection may indicate a much more critical outcome than if the same complications occurred later on, due to the alteration of the primary bone healing process. When your dental implants are placed, your oral surgeon will provide you with a list of postoperative instructions that should be followed. You will need to take antibiotics to prevent infections and eat soft foods until told otherwise.

Not taking antibiotics could cause an infection that causes the implants to fail. In addition, if you eat hard foods too soon, the implants can become unstable and move or fracture. Then, the oral surgeon would have to remove the implants. Factors related to implant design can trigger early implant infection and cause implant failure.

These factors include the use of non-biocompatible implant material or surface coating, contaminated implants, and an incorrect design of macroimplants or microimplants, which may hinder the stability of the primary implant. In addition, bone loss problems are a cause for concern, whether proven, for example, due to poor implant placement, or emerging, such as inadequate gum surrounding the implant, foreign titanium particles and hypertension. Rosen, DMD, clinical professor of periodontics with a master's degree, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Baltimore, Maryland; private practice, Yardley, Pennsylvania. It was hypothesized that the age, sex, surface and height of the implant, the lack of prophylactic use of antibiotics, the type of surgery (in one or two stages), the placement of a new socket and bone quality could be associated with a high failure rate of dental implants.

When analyzing implant failure based on implant length, it was revealed that 32 of the 476 implants (6.7%) with a length of less than 10 mm and 41 of the 617 implants (6.6%) with a length greater than 10 mm failed. When this process occurs, the implant becomes a permanent part of the bone and acts as an anchor for artificial teeth. Regarding the type of implant, a failure was observed in 37 of the 629 cylindrical implants (5.9%) and in 36 of the 464 conical implants (7.8%). The implant placement time was evaluated in two groups: placement of fresh alveoli and delayed placement for implants placed more than three months after tooth extraction.

The first is somewhat easier to treat, since the causes could be related to surgical trauma, such as bone overheating (dense type I), poor bone quality, underlying systemic disease, infection, premature implant load or inadequate primary implant stability, to name just a few reasons. This can cause an incorrect placement of the implant and tension at the implant site, causing the growth of aerobic bacteria that can cause infections or an abscess. His passion is to bring dental prevention to his clients through a holistic experience, comprehensive risk assessments and the use of innovative products for clinical and home use. Since implant failure has a multifactorial etiology, the determination of all factors requires a large sample size and strict control of variables.

Conical implants have higher primary stability and provide superior clinical results than cylindrical implants. Surgical debridement of the pocket and disinfection of the implant body are essential to stop the disease process. .

Diana Macall
Diana Macall

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